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What is Autism
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General Resources cont.
Treatment Specific Resources
Treatment Specific Resources cont.
Pivotal Response Therapy
- How to Teach Pivotal Behaviors to Children with Autism: A Training Manual - The goal of the manual is to teach individuals how to utilize pivotal response training (PRT) to benefit individuals on the autism spectrum, and the manual provides several examples of good and bad intervention strategies.
- Increasing Complex Social Behaviors in Children with Autism: Effects of Peer-Implemented Pivotal Response Training - This article explains how peer-implemented pivotal response training was used to create positive changes in the overall social behavior of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Two individuals with autism socially interacted with two neuro-typical children in 10 minute play sessions and were graded on the following social behaviors: Maintains Interactions, Initiates Conversation, Initiates Play, Supported Joint Attention, and Coordinated Joint Attention. The study concludes with the results illustrated by numerous graphs.
- Pivotal Response Intervention I: Overview of Approach- These two articles present an overview of several pivotal response interventions for autism spectrum disorder. Pivotal areas are defined as areas that, when changed, produce significant improvements in the overall individual. The first article presents a description of some of the research being conducted at University of California, Santa Barbara concerning pivotal areas. The second article explains on some preliminary outcome data, which suggests that teaching spontaneous initiations as a pivotal response may relate to favorable outcomes.
- Texas Guide for Effective Teaching Pivotal Response Training- The purpose of this article is to suggest ways to teach pivotal response therapy (PRT). This article details the four primary focus areas of pivotal response therapy. The article includes a brief example of PRT in action, and provides the results of over a dozen studies pertaining to PRT.
- Pivotal Response Training (PRT) Procedures for Implementation: Motivation- Procedures on how to increase motivation in a home setting or a in the general education classroom are discussed in this module. Some of the topics include establishing learner attention, share control and turn taking, using learner choice, and varying tasks and responses.
- Pivotal Response Training (PRT) Procedures for Implementation: Responsivity to Multiple Cues - This brief module discusses the implementation of Pivotal Response Training as a means of teaching responsivity to multiple cues. Steps involved in this process include varying stimuli and increasing cues and scheduling the reinforcement, each of which is discussed in great detail.
- Teaching Key Pivotal Behaviors: Procedures for Implementation: Self-Initiations- This article provides a series of different peer-mediated intervention strategies that can be implemented to teach pivotal behaviors.